On August 23, 2021, the FDA approved the first COVID-19 vaccine.
COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca (active ingredients: ChAdOx1-S (Viral vector))
Adenoviruses are effective vectors for inducing and boosting cellular immunity to encoded recombinant antigens. However, the widespread seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies to common human adenovirus serotypes limits their use. Simian adenoviruses do not suffer from the same disadvantages. Therefore, investigators have tested new vaccines using the chimp adenovirus ChAdOx1 as a vector. For example, a vaccine for influenza infection was designed using the vector expressing influenza antigens, nucleoprotein (NP), and matrix protein 1 (M1), creating a vaccine candidate named ChAdOx1 NP+M1.
COMIRNATY COVID-19 vaccine (active ingredients: BNT162b2 (mRNA))
BNT162b2 is a lipid nanoparticle–formulated, nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine that encodes a prefusion stabilized, membrane-anchored SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein. The primary end points were efficacy of the vaccine against laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 and safety.